This is the latest accepted revision, reviewed on 14 March 2019. In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. A hoax is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without penipuan Forex intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim. In common law jurisdictions, as a civil wrong, fraud is a tort.
While the precise definitions and requirements of proof vary among jurisdictions, the requisite elements of fraud as a tort generally are the intentional misrepresentation or concealment of an important fact upon which the victim is meant to rely, and in fact does rely, to the harm of the victim. In cases of a fraudulently induced contract, fraud may serve as a defense in a civil action for breach of contract or specific performance of contract. Fraud may serve as a basis for a court to invoke its equitable jurisdiction. The elements of fraud as a crime similarly vary.
A prohibited act of deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means. The deprivation must be caused by the prohibited act, and deprivation must relate to property, money, valuable security, or any service. The proof requirements for criminal fraud charges in the United States are essentially the same as the requirements for other crimes: guilt must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt. Throughout the United States fraud charges can be misdemeanors or felonies depending on the amount of loss involved. High value frauds can also include additional penalties.